Greek voice



Greek language has some special particularities as its grammatical voice. The Greek voice is divided in: Active, Passive and Middle voice. The last one doesn’t exist in English language.


  1. Active voice: This type of voice is used when a subject performs an action, or the action is received by another.
  2. Examples:

    • ἀνὴρθύειβοῦν (A man is sacrificing an ox).

    • ἄνερ, θσονβοῦν(Man, sacrifice an ox).

  3. Passive voice: This type of voice is used when a person receives the action.
  4. Examples:

    • ἀνὴρτιμταιὑπ' ἀνδρός(A man is honoured by a man). In this tense the verb is same with the verb of the middle voice.

    • ἀνὴρτιμήθηὑπ' ἀνδρός(A man was honoured by a man). In this tense the verb is different from the verb of the middle voice (aorist).

  5. Middle voice: It refers to a verbal process of intimate and personal interest of the subject as it affects within its sphere of dominant.

  6. Examples:

    • Make an expedition (voz activa).
    • Participate in an expedition (voz media).

    • ἀνὴρτιμται(A man is honouring himself).
    • ἀνὴρτιμήσατο(A man honoured himself).

     

    In later Koine Greek grammar the trend to greater use of reflexive pronouns means that middle voice becomes more used for other meanings.


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